Here you will find all cereals containing gluten at a glance.
Wheat or soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) is also known as bread wheat and belongs to the family of sweet grasses (Poaceae). Common wheat is one of the oldest cultivated and originates from crosses of various wild grasses. For generating satisfying yields and qualities, wheat makes higher claims on climate, soil and water than other cereals do. Economically seen, soft wheat is the most important kind of wheat and is used for the production of bakery products, malt, animal feed etc. Common wheat is grown in the winter as well as in the summer season and reaches a height of 100 cm. The ears of most sorts are not aristate and in a cross section view they are quadratic.
Out of an economic perspective, the durum wheat (Triticum durum) is the second most important type of wheat after common wheat. This wheat is almost exclusively cultivated as summer crop
Durum wheat likes warmth and requires less than 500 mm of rainfall. Out of this climatic reason, the most important countries producing durum wheat in Europe are Italy, France, Spain and Greece.
The quality of durum wheat is determined the falling number and the content of gluten or protein as well as by the glassiness. In hot and dry ripening, the starch granules solidly cement with the protein. This results in a high glassiness, resulting in a subcorneous-transparent, amber yellow and hard durum wheat grain.
Rye (Secale cereale) is mostly cultivated in the moderate temperate latitudes and belongs to the family of sweet grasses (Poaceae), like wheat. Even in cooler locations and lighter soils, rye still provides good harvest. For this reason, rye is often spread on sandy soils. He is known as a modest, disease-resistant crop, which has good characteristic of the previous crop. In Europe, rye is mainly grown as overwintering. It reaches a height of up to 200 cm. The spikes are aristate and narrow.
Oats (Avena) is one plant species in the family of sweet grasses. In comparison to other cereals, it differs in the form of fructification. In the case of oat, this is developed as panicle and not as a spike. Oat prefers a moderate climate with high precipitation and does not need high quality soil. Oats are mainly sown as summer crop in the early spring. As most crop parasites do not multiply in the oats, he is also known as a recovery crop.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the most important cereals and belongs to the family of sweet grasses. The barley’s spikes are made up with long beards which incline or hang when getting mature. Due to different spikes, barley is distinguished in two-and multi-line sorts. In the case of the two-line barley only one grain is developed, which is highly developed. The multi-row barley generates up to three weaker grains per assay point. Two-row barley (mostly summer barley) is mainly used for brewing purposes. Summer barley, which is not suitable for malting, can then be used as a peeling barley. Multi-line row barley (often winter barley) has a higher yield and is often used as animal feed.
Spelt (Triticum aestivum subsp. Spelta) is closely related to the today common wheat. In recent years, the cultivation of spelt has again been rising. Although it’s yields are not comparable with the one of wheat, it is more resistant to diseases and even with weaker soil properties, good qualities can be achieved. In contrast to wheat, the grain of this sort is strongly grown together with the spelt. For this reason, an additional step - the hulling - is needed when processing the spelt. The boom of spelt is also connected to the fact that people who are allergic to wheat products (which must not to be confused with celiac disease), substitute the wheat with the spelt to achieve higher tolerance.
The unripe spelt (Baden rice) is spelt which is harvested half-ripe and afterwards immediately dried artificially. This process is called a kiln. Traditionally, the unripe spelt is kilned over a beech wood fire, which leads to it’s typical flavor. High quality unripe spelt has an olive green color.
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